The Reserve is located in the province Sud Lipez of the city of Potosi, with the following limits: to the Northwest, the sources of Silala or Siloli River, located in the foothills of the same name, in the line of Bolivian- Chilean border. The boundary will follow in a straight line, from North to East, pass through the peaks of Chico and Sanabria hills, to the town of Quetena Chico or Barrancas. From this population the border will continue towards the Southeast, by the slopes of Hualakhonkhana, Uturunco hill and will pass by the South of Coruto Lagoon until finding the Abra Located between Baja and Vilama hill in the border with the Argentine Republic. The South will limit with the Republics of Chile and Argentina. To the West with the Republic of Chile.
The Eduardo Avaroa Reserve, compared to other protected areas, has levels of biodiversity (considering the number of species of flora and fauna) particularly low, biological communities in general are very simplified although with a high degree of specialization and adaptation to valid conditions. It contributes to the protection of important elements of our heritage:
- It has unique Andean ecosystems that do not exist in other protected areas, such as salt lagoons, wetlands with particular characteristics, deserts and others.
- It presents the largest population of vicuñas of the protected southern race, as well as an important population of yareta.
- It presents genetic resources of camelid cattle of the own region.
- It presents archaeological sites that tell us about the history of the cultures that inhabited it more than 10,000 years ago and that are the origin of actual bolivian people that inhabit it.
In an almost desert region, wetlands such as lagoons and wetlands build oases that concentrate and maintain diverse manifestations of local and regional biodiversity and are natural values of the first level. Laguna Colorada and Verde Lagoon are almost emblematic elements of the region; however, there are many others of enormous importance. The case of Totoral lagoon can become almost unique for the high number of species that it shelters, not only in the wetland but also in its surrounding areas; it considers that it is a small lagoon in terms of surface area. Other lakes such as Katalcito, Kalina, Loro Mayu, Hedionda, Mama Khuru, Kastor or Celeste, are enormous value from the ecological, scientific and scenic point of view. Some of these, like the last three mentioned, are in the area of influence in the area of potential expansion of the Reserve.